Ch7 Telegraph

  • 1792 – Claude Chappe invents “telegraph” of signal flags on towerså
  • 1825 — William Sturgeon invents electromagnet
  • 1830 – Joseph Henry uses electric current to ring bell
  • 1835 – Samuel Morse uses electric current to print letters on paper
  • 1835 – Havas news agency formed in Paris; becomes AFP in 1944
  • 1837 – Charles Wheatstone invents version of telegraph
  • 1838 – Samuel Morse patents electromagnetic telegraph and code in US
  • 1844 – Morse demonstrates telegraph in Washington DC; first message:  What Hath God Wrought?  (Numbers 23:23)
  • 1846 – News co-op formed to cover Mexican war; telegraph expands
  • 1848 – New York harbor co-op, forerunner of NY Associated Press
  • 1849 – Bernard Wolff forms Telegraphisches Bureau in Germany
  • 1850 – US has 10,000 miles of telegraph lines
  • 1851 – Competing telegraph companies vie for domination
  • 1851 – Paul Reuter opens Reuters telegraph news service in London
  • 1851 – Seven newspapers form NY Associated Press
  • 1854 – Thoreau sees telegraph as  “improved means to an unimproved end”
  • 1855 – Western Union formed from competing telegraph companies
  • 1858 – First trans-Atlantic telegraph built; fails in 26 days
  • 1861 – Transcontinental telegraph New York to California
  • 1862 – Western AP formed; becomes national AP in 1892
  • 1865 – Havas, Reuters and Wolff form European news cartel
  • 1865 – Int’l Telegraph Union formed; now part of United Nations
  • 1866 – Permanent trans-Atlantic telegraph link between US and Britain
  • 1866 – Western Union merges with last competitor, American Telegraph
  • 1866 – First Congressional investigation into telegraph monopoly
  • 1876 – Alexander Graham Bell patents telephone 
    1879 — National Bell Telephone Company formed
  • 1882 – United Press wire service formed
  • 1892 – Western AP becomes Associated Press, national organization
  • 1893 – AP gets exclusive contract with Reuters for European news
    1893 –  Bell patent expires, competing phone companies spring up
  • 1894 – Cutthroat competition for phone service
  • 1897 – United Press bankrupt
  • 1899 – AT&T becomes parent company of Bell Telephone
  • 1900 – AP loses anti-trust case in Illinois, reincorporates in New York
  • 1907 – A new United Press Association (later UPI) competes with AP
  • 1908 – AT&T begins major public relations campaign to justify monopoly
  • 1908 – AT&T buys Western Union
  • 1913 – AT&T- Justice Dept. Kingsbury Commitment OKs regulated monopoly
  • 1913 – AT&T sells Western Union as part of the Kingsbury Commitment
  • 1915 – First transatlantic telephone call
  • 1926 – NBC network uses telephone lines to connect radio stations
  • 1933 – Singing telegrams introduced as a novelty
  • 1935 – AP begins sending Wire-photos to news organizations
  • 1930s –AT&T survives anti-trust scrutiny due to continuing PR campaign
  • 1933 — Associated Press pressured to stop news service to radio networks
  • 1945 – AP loses anti-trust case, ends exclusive memberships
  • 1947 – Bell Labs scientists develop the transistor
  • 1963 – AT&T helps launch telephone satellite Telstar
  • 1971 – DARPA offers AT&T ownership and management of the computer internet;  AT&T declines
  • 1974 – Western Union sends up satellite Westar
  • 1983  — AT&T phone monopoly broken up into regional systems
  • 1984  — computers with modems end media use of telegrams
  • 2010 – Justice Dept approves AP news index

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