3c. Civil rights

Civil Rights in the U.S.

  1. History of the Black Press,  In 1827 a group of prominent free African American citizens from states along the Eastern seaboard met in the New York City. It was the beginning of Freedom’s Journal, the first newspaper published by black Americans.
  2. Afro-American Press, by Irvine Garland Penn, 1891, Wiley & Co., Springfield, MA.  This is the original summary of the ‘golden age’ of the African American press.  Shortly after this book was published, black newspapers were being burned out in Memphis, Wilmington NC, Tulsa OK, and Detroit MI.
  3. Reporting Civil Rights – a book and web site
  4. Following the Color Line, Ray Stannard Baker, 1908 — A famous book about race relations in America in the early 20th century.  Much of the difficult content has been played down, for example, that A. L. Manley, editor of the Wilmington NC Daily Record, a daily black newspaper burned down in the city’s race riots in 1898, was ten years later working as a janitor in Philadelphia (p. 160).
  5. Civil Rights historyand early figures in the movement
    • Frederick Douglass (1818 – 1895) Editor of North Star, pragmatic, pro-Northern anti-slavery lecturer See Writings
    • William Lloyd Garrisson (1805 – 1879) — Editor of The Liberator, led the radical end of the abolitionist spectrum. He denounced churches, political parties, even voting because the system supported slavery. He believed in the dissolution (break up) of the Union. See Writings
    • Booker T. Washington (1865 – 1915) — Eductor from the “accomodationist” perspective, founder of Tuskegee Institute  See Writings
    • Henry Grady (1850 – 1889) — Atlanta Constitution editor , predecessor of McGill, advocated “New South” but downplayed racial turmoil in the 1870s and 80s.
    • Marcus Garvey (1887 – 1940)  — Afrocentric separatist.  See Writings
    • WEB DuBois (1868 – 1963) A harbinger of black nationalism and civil rights. See Writings
  6. John H. Johnstone, (1914-2008)  publisher of Ebony and Jet magazines, winner of 1996 Presidential Medal of Freedom, Ambassador to Kenya and Ivory Coast.
  7. Ralph McGill (1898 – 1969) — Publisher of the Altanta Constitution won the Pulitzer Prize in 1959 for his editorials, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964 for courageous stand.   See the documentary film: Dawns Early Light: Ralph McGill and the segregated South (Center for Contemporary Media, Inc., c1988) McGill wrote about meeting WEB DuBois in a 1965 Atlantic magazine article.
  8. Virginius Dabney (1901 – 1995) — Editor of the Richmond Times Dispatch in the 1950s, a contemporary of McGill, a Souther liberal who did not fight as aggressively against segregation as McGill but who quietly supported equal rights.
  9. The Greensboro NC Sit Ins – 1960 and recent accounts of the first lunch counter sit-ins
  10. In 1959, a white American journalist named John Howard Griffin dyed his skin black and traveled for six weeks in the South.  His stories about the day-to-day prejudice and hardships facing black people were turned into one of the great books of all time, Black Like Me.
  11. Son of the Rough South –  Karl Fleming’s book about violence in Los Angeles.
  12. Dan Rather, Covering the Civil Rights Movement (1998 remarks)
  13. David R. Davies, The Press and Race (Mississippi and the 1950s civil rights movement)
  14. Let Us Praise Famous Writers: Reese Cleghorn by Dallas Lee.
  15. John Beecher – Audio recordings of Civil Rights leaders UT Austin.

Civil rights worldwide

  1. Mahatma Gandhi, South Africa, India, 1869 – 1948; also see George Orwell’s Reflections on Gandhi, 1949.
  2. Ken Saro-Wiwa, Nigeria, 1948 – 1995
  3. Gerry Ortega, Philippines, 1963 – 2011
  4. Muhammed Syaifulla, Ardiansyah Matra’is, Indonesia, 2011
  5. In the land of slavery, Rolling Stone, Sept 8 2005, Osha Grey Davison, about slavery on Brazilian ranches.
  6. The moral obligation of India’s media, by Manu Joseph, July 4, 2013. “The Indian news media, especially the mainstream English-language publications whose consumers are largely the privileged and the fortunate, is not as interested as it should be in the nation’s bewildering social issues.”
  7. The role of the news media in the Apartheid Era in South Africa,  Edward Bird and Zureida Garda, an excellent example of content analysis.

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